Paris tracker: Who pledged what for 2015 UN climate pact?

188 countries have now submitted climate plans to the UN, with Venezuela slipping its targets in the final plenary of the COP21 talks

(Pic: Martin Fisch)

(Pic: Martin Fisch)



4/2/2016 – Nepal: Boost renewables to generate 80% of electricity by 2050. Increase ‘forest carbon stocks’ 5% by 2025 on 2015 levels.

15/12/2015 – Venezuela: 20% cuts on a business as usual trajectory by 2030, dependent on public sources of climate finance.

12/12 – St Kitts and Nevis: 22% cuts on business as usual by 2025, 35% by 2030. (Funding needs to be published at a later date)

4/12 – Tonga: Aims for 50% of electricity from renewable sources by 2020 and 70% by 2030, plus double the number of marine protected areas in 15 years.

1/12 – Brunei: Cut energy consumption 63% from business as usual levels, get 10% of electricity from renewables and expand forest reserves to 55% of land area by 2035.

29/11 – Angola: Aims to cut emissions 35-50% from business as usual by 2030, depending on international support. Price tag US$15 billion, plus $1bn for adaptation.

28/11 – Palau: Cut energy sector emissions 22% from 2005 levels by 2025.

28/11 – Nigeria: Cut emissions 20% from business as usual in 2030, or up to 45% with international support.

27/11 – Tuvalu: Cut energy sector emissions 60% from 2010 levels by 2025.

27/11 – Jamaica: Cut emissions 8% from business as usual in 2030, with 20% of energy coming from renewable sources.

27/11 – MalaysiaCut emissions intensity 35% from 2005 to 2030, or up to 45% with international support.

25/11 – Niue: Aims to get 80% of energy from renewable sources by 2025, subject to international support.

“Niue’s future is imperilled by the effects of climate change for which it bears absolutely no responsibility” – official submission.

24/11 – Kuwait: Analysis to be updated on receipt of English translation of Arabic submission.

24/11 – Bahrain: No targets to cut emissions. Offers support for renewable energy, carbon capture and energy efficiency.

24/11 – Micronesia: Targets 28% cut in greenhouse gas emissions from 2000 levels by 2025, increasing to 35% with international support.

23/11 – Yemen: Aims to cut emissions 1% on business-as-usual by 2030, rising to 14% with financial assistance.

23/11 – Cuba: Offered support for renewable power, though specified no targets, nor emission cuts. Could revise pledge on outcome of Paris agreement.

23/11 – South Sudan: Aims to plant 20 million trees over a decade and preserve 20% of natural forests. Policies to develop clean energy and transport. Estimated US$50 billion of investment needed in mitigation and adaptation by 2030.

21/11 – Iran: Targets greenhouse gas emission cut of 4% from business as usual in 2030, rising to 12% with international support. All action subject to lifting of economic sanctions.

20/11 – Qatar: No target to cut emissions. May consider solar energy dependent on technology transfer from developed countries.

20/11 – Cook Islands: Reduce emissions from electricity sector 38% by 2020 on 2006 levels. Power country with 100% renewable electricity by same year.

18/11 – St Lucia: Cut emissions 16% below business as usual in 2025 and 23% in 2030, subject to international support.

18/11 – St Vincent and the Grenadines: Cut emissions 22% below business as usual by 2025.

18/11 – Bahamas: Cut emissions 30% below business as usual by 2030. Total cost of plan $900 million.

17/11 – Somalia: Projects worth US$100 million to boost resilience, rehabilitate hydroelectric dam and tackle unsustainable charcoal production.

17/11 – Nauru: Replace “a substantial part” of electricity generation from diesel plants with solar panels, subject to US$50 million of finance.

17/11 – El Salvador: Develop clean power strategy by December 2016, restore a million hectares of degraded land by 2030.

12/11 – Pakistan: No measurable target.

“Pakistan is committed to reduce its emissions after reaching peak levels to the extent possible subject to affordability, provision of international climate finance, transfer of technology and capacity building” – official submission

12/11 – Iraq: Analysis to be updated on receipt of English translation of Arabic submission.

11/11 – Egypt: Phase out of fossil fuel subsidies within 3-5 years. No quantifiable carbon cuts, but support for increasing renewables’ share of electricity generation.

10/11 – Sudan: Policies including 1,000MW of solar, 1,000MW wind power by 2030, dependent on $12.88 billion of international support.

10/11 – Saudi Arabia: Seeks “mitigation co-benefits ambitions” of up to 130 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent a year by 2030, conditional on continued economic growth.

5/11 – Fiji: Cut emissions 10% on business as usual levels by 2030, rising to 30% on $500 million of foreign funding. Higher target could see 100% of electricity come from renewable power.

28/10 – Suriname: Minimise deforestation, expand biofuel and hydropower capacity with international support. Mitigation and adaptation costs estimated at US$3.5 billion to 2025.

22/10 – Sri Lanka: Greenhouse gas emissions cut of 7% from business as usual by 2030, or up to 23% with international support. Measures to adapt to climate impacts estimated to cost US$420 million over the next decade.

22/10 – United Arab Emirates: Increase clean energy to 24% of mix by 2021, from 0.2% in 2014.

“The UAE’s actions are based on a strategy for economic diversification that will yield co-benefits in terms of both mitigation and adaptation” – official submission

19/10 – Oman: 2% emissions cut on business as usual by 2030

19/10 – Antigua and Barbuda: Set up efficiency targets for vehicle imports by 2030, among other policies. No emission reduction target

16/10 – Uganda: 22% emission cuts on a business as usual basis by 2030 due to a “series of policies and measures in the energy supply, forestry and wetland sectors.”

12/10 – Bolivia: says it will halt illegal tree-cutting within five years and double renewable energy’s share of power generation to 79% by 2030.

6/10 – Afghanistan: Aims to cut emissions 13.6% from business as usual by 2030, conditional on international support, and reduce vulnerability to climate impacts. Price tag estimated at US$17.4 billion.

“Despite suffering decades of instability and war, Afghanistan has made considerable development progress” – official submission

1/10 – ArgentinaPlans to cut emissions 15% below business as usual by 2030 emissions, rising to 30% on international support.

1/10 – MozambiquePlans to cut emissions 76.5 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent over 2020-30. “These reductions are estimates with a significant level of uncertainty and will be updated… by early 2018.”

1/10 – EcuadorCut energy sector emissions by 20.4-25% below business as usual by 2030. That could rise to 37.5-45.8% on international support.

1/10 – India: India aims to cut its greenhouse gas emissions for each unit of GDP 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030.  Will need an estimated $2.5 trillion in support and targets 40% of electricity from non-fossil fuel sources by that date.

“Surprisingly, the country’s carbon intensity target doesn’t fully capture the emissions it would avoid if it succeeds in meeting its renewable energy goals. We expect India can exceed its carbon intensity target in the course of shifting to non-fossil energy” – Nitin Pandit, CEO, World Resources Institute India 

1/10 – Belize: Reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 62% below business by 2033. Will raise renewable energy to 85% of electricity mix, in aim to reduce greenhouse gases 24 million tonnes of CO2e from 2014-33.

1/10 – Paraguay10% emissions cut from business as usual by 2030, rising to 20% on international support.

1/10 – Botswana10% emissions cut by 2030, from a 2010 baseline. Cost estimate US$18.4 billion.

1/10 – Sierra LeoneKeep emissions “relatively low” by 2035, dependent on around US$900 million of support.

1/10 – HondurasCut emissions 15% from business as usual by 2030, conditional on international support; plant 1 million hectares of forest.

1/10 – Thailand: Intends to cut emissions by 20% from business as usual by 2030, rising to 25% on international support.

1/10 – Guinea:  Will cut emissions 13% by 2030 on 1994 levels. Total cost of tag: $8.2 billion

1/10 – PhilippinesCut emissions by 70%  by 2030 relative to a business as usual scenario.

1/10 – Cameroon: Cut emissions up to 32% by 2035 on business as usual, depending on international support.

1/10 – Samoa: Generate 100% of electricity from renewable sources by 2017, and maintain it through to 2025 with international support.

30/9 – San Marino: Cuts emissions 20% on 2005 levels by 2030.

30/9 – Turkey: Up to 21% emissions cuts from business as usual by 2030, using a mix of domestic and international resources.

30/9 – Togo: Emissions cuts of 11% from business as usual by 2030, rising to 31% with international support. Price tag US$3.5 billion.

30/9 – Papua New Guinea: Could tackle deforestation with support through international REDD+ scheme; some hydropower and renewable potential.

30/9 – Liberia: Emissions cuts of 15% from business as usual by 2030, subject to international support.

30/9 – Tajikistan: “Flexible” target to deliver 10-20% greenhouse gas emissions cuts from 1990 levels by 2030, or up to 45% with international support.

30/9 – Lesotho: Unconditional emissions cuts of 10% from business as usual by 2030, or 30% with international support.

30/9 – Rwanda: Target still under development. US$24 billion price tag for water, energy and agriculture measures.

30/9 – CambodiaPlans to reduce emissions by 27% on business as usual by 2030.

30/9 – Gambia: Emissions reduction of up to 44.4% from business as usual by 2025 and 45.4% by 2030, excluding land use and forestry, dependent on international finance.

30/9 – MalawiMix of policies could cut per capita use from 1.4t CO2e in 2010 to 0.7-0.8t in 2030, if fully implemented, compared to increase to 1.5t under business as usual.

30/9 – BhutanPlans to remain carbon neutral as set out in 2009. Repeats commitment to keep 60% of territory forested.

30/9 – Costa RicaPlans to cut emissions 24.7% below 2012 levels by 2030.

30/9 – ZimbabwePlans to keep per-capita emissions from energy sector 33% below business as usual by 2030, provided there is sufficient support.

30/9 – Turkmenistan: Aims to keep emissions in 2030 at 2015 levels.

30/9 – Solomon IslandsPlans to cut emissions to 12% below business as usual in 2025 and 30% in 2030. That could rise to 27% and 45% respectively with funding. GHG emissions could be cut by over 50% with appropriate support by 2050.

30/9 – JordanPlans to reduce emissions by 1.5% below business as usual by 2030, rising to 14% with international support.

30/9 – Burundi: Aims to cut greenhouse gases 3% below business as usual by 2030, rising to 20% on international support.

30/9 – LebanonAims to cut greenhouse gases 15% below business as usual by 2030, rising to 30% on international support.

30/9 – Ukraine: Emissions will not exceed 60% of 1990 levels by 2030. In 2012, they were at 42.9%, and can rise as high as 76% by 2020. INDC will be revised on restoration of territorial integrity’

30/9 – HaitiEmissions will fall 5% below 2000 levels by 2030, rising to 31% on international support at a cost of $25.4 billion.

30/9 – Sao Tome and PrincipeCut emissions 24% by 2030 on 2005 levels. Country is a net carbon sink.

30/9 – Guatemala: Plans to cut emissions 11.2% on 2005 levels by 2030. That could rise to 22.6% with international support.

30/9 – IsraelCut greenhouse gases 26% below 2005 levels by 2030.

29/9 – DominicaPlans to cut emissions 44.7% by 2030 below 2014 levels, conditional on international funding.

29/9 – Congo: Cut emissions by 48% by 2025 and 55% in 2035 below business as usual levels.

29/9 – AzerbaijanReduce greenhouse gases 35% below 1990 levels by 2030.

29/9 – Tanzaniacut emissions by 10-20% below business as usual by 2030.

29/9 – Swaziland: Double renewable energy share by 2030 from 2010 levels, introduce 10% ethanol to petrol, phase out HFCs and other potent climate pollutants. Will develop an emissions target and plan by 2020.

29/9 – Zambia: Emissions cuts of 25% from business as usual by 2030 with domestic resources, costed at US$15 billion, increasing to 47% with an estimated $35bn of international support.

29/9 – Grenada: Cut emissions 30% from 2010 levels by 2025, with an indicative target of 40% by 2030. US$161 million cost to be met by international development funds.

29/9 – Namibia: An 89% cut to greenhouse gas emissions from business as usual by 2030, mainly through reducing deforestation. Price tag: US$33 billion.

29/9 – Uruguay: In energy sector, cut CO2 per unit of GDP 25% from 1990 to 2030, or up to 40% with international support. Separate targets for methane and nitrous oxide, particularly in beef production.

29/9 – Barbados: Emissions cut of 44% compared to business as usual in 2030, equivalent to an absolute cut of 23% from 2008 levels.

29/9 – Mauritania: 22.3% emissions cuts by 2030 below business as usual, of which five-sixths hinges on international support. Total cost for mitigation and adaptation estimated at US$17.6 billion.

29/9 – Vietnam: GHG cuts of 8% below business as usual by 2030, rising to 25% on international finance.

29/9 – Kyrgyztan: Cut GHGs 11.49 – 13.75% below business as usual in 2030, or 29.00 – 30.89% with international support.

29/9 – Cote d’Ivoire: 28% emissions cut below 2012 levels by 2030.

29/9 – Cape Verde: Will specify GHG cuts from energy sector in second half of 2016, sets targets to achieve 100% grid access by 2017. Renewable energy penetration to rise to 3o% by 2025, or up to 100% on international finance.

29/9 – Niger: Commits to cut GHGs 3.5% below business as usual by 2030, rising to 34.6% with international support

29/9 – ArmeniaCan emit 663 million tonnes of CO2- equivalent over period 2015-2050, equal to 5.4 tonnes per capita based on 1990 population. First country to submit a per-capita target.

29/9 – BeninAims to cut greenhouse gas emissions 3.5% below business as usual levels by 2030, rising to 21.4% with international support. Budget to meet mitigation and adaptation goals is US$ 30 billion, $2.32 billion of which Benin will provide.

28/9 – Mali: Cut emissions from agriculture 29%, energy sector 31%, land-use change 21% below business-as-usual by 2030.

28/9 – Vanuatu: Cut energy sector emissions 30% below business-as-usual by 2030, and 100% for electricity sub-sector, conditional on international support

28/9 – Chile: Cut emissions per unit of GDP 30% below 2007 levels by 2030. That rises to 35-45% with international support.

28/9 – Burkina Faso: Cut GHG emissions by 7.6% below business-as-usual levels by 2030. Rises to 18.2% on international support.

28/9 – Barbados: Cut GHGs 44% below business as usual. In absolute terms, that’s 23% below 2008 levels by 2030.

28/9 – Guyana: Cut emissions up to 52 million tonnes of CO2 by 2025 in forestry and energy sectors

28/9 – Chad: Cut emissions by 18.2% below business as usual by 2030, rising to 71% on international support

28/9 – Peru: Plans to cut emissions 20% below business as usual by 2030, rising to 30% with international finance

28/9 – Kazakhstan: 15% emission cuts by 2030 compared with 1990 levels. Could rise to 25% conditional on international cash

28/9 – Maldives: 10% emission cuts from business as usual in 2030, rising to 24% with international support

28/9 – Cameroon: 32% emissions cut from business as usual by 2035, subject to international support. Estimated cost 2016-20 is US$1.8 billion.

28/9 – Mauritius: 30% emissions cut by 2030 compared to business as usual, subject to international support.

28/9 – Myanmar: Increase forest cover to 30% of land area by 2030, get 38% of electricity from hydro, improve electricity efficiency 20%, subject to international support. Data “not sufficiently reliable” to set overall emissions goal.

28/9 – Brazil: Unconditional pledge to cut greenhouse gas emissions 37% from 2005 levels by 2025, with an “indicative” target of 43% by 2030.

“Brazil is one of the few developing countries to commit to an absolute goal for emissions reduction” – president Dilma Rousseff

Independent assessment: “It’s significant that Brazil, among the world’s largest emitters, has the largest reduction target. But it is insufficient considering the potential the country has to do more” – Carlos Rittl, head of Climate Observatory

28/9 – Central African RepublicReduce emissions 5% on business as usual levels by 2030. Total cost of $3.69 billion; $3.46 relies on international cash.

26/9 – Senegal: GHG cuts of 6% by 2030 from business as usual, rising to 31% on international finance. Cost of plan comes to $21.5 billion.

26/9 – Kiribati: GHG cuts of 12.8% by 2030 compared with business as usual levels. Rises to 49% reduction on international finance.

“As one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to the effects of climate change its ability to respond to climate risks is hampered by its highly vulnerable socio-economic and geographical situation” – UN communication

25/9 – Moldova: Aims to cut emissions by 64-67% below 1990 levels by 2030. Could rise to 78% on international finance of up to $5.1 billion.

25/9 – South Africa: Aims to ‘peak, plateau and decline’ emissions by 2030, requires $53 billion for adaptation to climate impacts.

25/9 – Belarus: Aims to cut GHGs 28% below 1990 levels by 2030.

25/9 – GeorgiaCommits to 15% cut on business as usual by 2030, which could rise to 25% on international support.

25/9 – Seychelles: Will slash emissions 29% on a business as usual basis by 2030, costing an estimated $309 million

25/9 – Bangladesh: Plans to cut GHG emissions 5% by 2030 compared with business-as-usual levels in power, transport, industry sectors, rising to 15% on international support.

24/9 – Mongolia:  14% reduction in total national GHG emissions excluding Land use, land use change and forestry by 2030, compared to the projected emissions under a business as usual scenario.

24/9 – Indonesia: Unconditional 29% greenhouse gas emissions cuts on business as usual by 2030. With international support this could rise to 41%.

24/9 – Madagascar: 14% cuts on business as usual by 2030.

24/9 – Albania: 11.5% cuts on a business as usual trajectory by 2030.

23/9 – Ghana: 15% emission cuts on business as usual by 2030.

23/9 – Mauritania: 22.3% GHG cuts on a business as usual scenario by 2030. Will need $17.6 billion to pay for mitigation and adaptation efforts.

23/9 – Montenegro: 30% cuts by 2030 compared to the 1990 base year. “The reduction is to be achieved by general increase of energy efficiency, improvement of industrial technologies, increase of the share of renewables and modernization in the power sector.”

21/9 – Equatorial GuineaCut emissions by 20% by 2030 compared with 2010 levels.

17/9 – GrenadaCut emissions 30% by 2025 on 2010 levels, with ‘indicative target’ of 40% cut by 2030 on 2010 levels.

17/9 – Comoros: 84% cut in GHG emissions by 2030 on business-as-usual.

16/9 – Tunisia: 13% cut in carbon intensity by 2030 from 2010 levels, rising to 41% with international cash

11/9 – Cote d’Ivoire: 28% GHG cuts on business-as-usual by 2030, rising to 36% with additional support

7/9 – Colombia: 20% GHG cuts on business-as-usual by 2030. Could rise to 30%, conditional on international support

4/9 – Algeria: 7% unconditional cut to greenhouse gas emissions from business as usual by 2030, rising to 22% with international support

18/8 – Dominican Republic25% GHG cuts on 2010 levels by 2030, conditional on climate finance.

18/8 – Democratic Republic of Congo: 17% GHG cuts by 2030 on 2000 levels, covering agriculture and forests, conditional on $21 billion of support.

14/8 – Djibouti: Cut emissions 40% from business as usual by 2030 using domestic resources, or another 20% with international support. Take measures to adapt to increasing risk of water scarcity.

“In order to combine the fight against climate change impacts with economic development, the Republic of Djibouti is pursuing the goal of becoming an economic crossroads and a showcase for sustainable development in the Red Sea” – UN submission

11/8 – Australia: 26-28% cuts on 2005 levels by 2030. Overall design of Australia’s 2030 target policy framework will be further considered in detail in 2017–2018.

“Australia’s 2030 target is a strong, credible and responsible contribution to climate action” – UN submission

“Australia’s weak target is another serious blow to its international reputation.  As with Prime Minister Abbott’s attempt to ignore climate change when hosting the G20 last year, this will send a serious shudder through the Pacific and raise concern amongst its closest allies, including the United States and Europe” – Marshall Islands minister Tony de Brum

7/8Trinidad and Tobago: 15% cuts on a business as usual baseline by 2030 from three sectors: transport, power generation, heavy industry.

“The estimated cost of meeting this objective is US$2 billion, which is expected to be met partly through domestic funding and conditional on international financing including through the Green Climate Fund.”

5/8 – Macedonia30% on business-as-usual levels by 2030, rising to 36% with finance.

“Due to the extensive use of fossil fuels, particularly the dominant share of domestic lignite for electricity production, there is a significant potential in the country for GHG emissions reduction” – UN submission

29/7 – Monaco: 50% greenhouse gas cuts on 1990 levels by 2030.

24/7 – Kenya: 30% greenhouse gas emissions cut from business as usual by 2030; “significant priority” placed on adapting to climate impacts.

“Kenya is determined to continue playing a leadership role in addressing climate change by communicating a fair and ambitious contribution” – UN submission

20/7 – Marshall Islands: 32% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 2010 levels by 2025 and 45% by 2030.

“It’s essential to our survival. Not just to talk about it but do what we can to contribute… it shows a small country can step up to the plate” – Foreign minister Tony de Brum

17/7 – Japan: will cut greenhouse gas emissions 26% from 2013 levels by 2030.

“Having faced a drastic change in its circumstances with regard to energy due to the Great East Japan Earthquake… Japan decided the new Strategic Energy Plan last year as a starting point for reviewing and rebuilding our energy strategy from scratch” – UN submission

Independent assessment: “With plans to build 52 new coal-fired power plants, Japan is heading in the wrong direction and put at odds with the G7 recent commitment to phase out fossil fuels by the end of the century” – Maiko Morishita, Oxfam

7/7 – New Zealand: will cut greenhouse gas emissions 30% below 2005 levels by 2030, equal to a reduction of 11% on 1990 levels. 

“New Zealand’s INDC will remain provisional pending confirmation of the approaches to be taken in accounting for the land sector, and confirmation of access to carbon markets” – UN submission

Independent assessment, Oxfam: “New Zealand’s neighbours in the Pacific are some of those most affected by climate change and this target will be a slap in the face to them. It is irresponsible for New Zealand to continue to pollute the atmosphere with dangerous amounts of greenhouse gases whilst also claiming to be a friend to the Pacific and other small island developing states.”

3/7 – Singapore: intends to peak emissions ‘around 2030’ and cut carbon emissions per unit of GDP by 36% from 2005 levels by 2030.

“Its mitigation contributions must be viewed within the context of its national circumstances, limited access to renewable energy, and early actions. As a lowlying island state of 716 km² with no natural resources, Singapore has to accommodate not only housing and commercial centres, but also power plants, reservoirs, air/seaports and industries within city boundaries” – official submission

30/6 – South Korea: cut emissions 37% on business as usual by 2030. Domestic action makes up 25.7% of cuts, 11.3% from buying international carbon credits.

“Korea’s mitigation potential is limited due to its industrial structure with a large share of manufacturing (32% as of 2012) and the high energy efficiency of major industries” – UN submission

30/6China: intends to peak emissions before 2030, cut levels of carbon emissions per unit of GDP 60-65% on 2005 levels by 2030, boost share of renewables and nuclear in energy mix to 20% by 2030.

“China has nationally determined its actions by 2030 as follows: To achieve the peaking of carbon dioxide emissions around 2030 and making best efforts to peak early” – UN submission

Independent assessment – “Meeting this goal won’t be easy, but research shows that with a sustained commitment China can reach its target even before 2030. This commitment will benefit China and represents a serious and credible contribution to tackle climate change.” Jennifer Morgan, WRI

30/6: Iceland: aims to match EU’s 40% reduction on 1990 levels by 2030

“A precise commitment for Iceland within such collective delivery has yet to be determined, and is dependent on an agreement with the European Union and its Member States and possibly other countries” – UN submission

30/6 – Serbia: 9.8% cut by 2030 on 1990 levels. De facto rise of 15.3% as Serbia emitting 25% less than baseline today.

“[t]he Republic of Serbia expresses is willingness to contribute to global GHG emissions reduction in accordance with its capabilities national circumstances and development goals”

10/6 – Ethiopia: 64% greenhouse gas emissions cut by 2030 on business as usual.

“The full implementation of Ethiopia’s INDC is contingent upon an ambitious multilateral agreement being reached among Parties that enables Ethiopia to get international support and that stimulates investments” – UN submission

6/06 – Morocco32% greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 on business as usual.

19% of 32% emissions cut conditional on $35 billion of climate finance and legally-binding deal in Paris. Intends to “substantially reduce” fossil fuel subsidies and have renewables provide 42% of ‘installed electrical power’

“Morocco has set a target to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) growth that will be reached through its own means, a target that could be enhanced substantially with support from the international community.” – UN submission

15/05Canada: 30% greenhouse gas emissions cut from 2005 levels by 2030. Curbs on methane leaks and regulations on fertilisers.

“Canada’s ambitious new target and planned regulatory actions underscore our continued commitment to cut emissions at home and work with our international partners to establish an international agreement in Paris that includes meaningful and transparent commitments from all major emitters” – Environment minister Leona Aglukkaq.

Independent assessment: “It doesn’t compare favourably with other developed countries,” – David Waskow, WRI

30/4Andorra: 37% GHG cut by 2030 compared to business as usual.

23/4 – Liechtenstein: 40% GHG cuts on 1990 levels by 2030, covering all sectors. Expects EU climate and energy policies to contribute to goal.

1/4 – Gabon: 50% greenhouse gas cuts by 2025 compared to business as usual. The INDC also includes plans for a national carbon market and a domestic green fund.

“I deeply appreciate Gabon’s initiative and welcome this first INDC from an African nation,” – Christiana Figueres, Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC.

31/3 – Russia: 25-30% on 1990 levels by 2030, “subject to the maximum possible account of absorbing capacity of forests”

“…if contribution of the Russian forests is fully taken into account, limiting GHG emissions to 70-75% of 1990 levels by the year 2030 does not create any obstacles for social and economic development…” – official submission.

Independent assessment: “Russia’s INDC is a magnum opus of hypotheticals,” – Thomas Hale, Blavatnik School of Government

31/3 – US: 26-28% on 2005 levels by 2025

“This target is consistent with a straight line emission reduction pathway from 2020 to deep, economy-wide emission reductions of 80% or more by 2050,” – official submission.

Independent assessment: “We are confident that the US commitment can be met — and even exceeded. Doing so, though, will require several critical steps,” – Rhea Suh, NRDC

27/3 – Mexico: Emissions peak by 2026, 25% reduction compared to business as usual in 2030 (includes black carbon)

“Mexico is a responsible party committed to tackling global climate change by transforming its development route to a low emissions pathway, which requires progressive decoupling of carbon emissions from economic growth,” – official submission.

Independent assessment: “Mexico’s plan to peak its emissions by 2026 is particularly encouraging and should inspire others to follow a similar course,” – Jennifer Morgan, World Resources Institute.

27/3Norway: 40% on 1990 levels by 2030

“Norway’s commitment … is well in line with the emissions pathways towards 2050 that correspond to keeping global warming below 2C,” – official submission.

Independent assessment: “I think it is good to link to the EU system. It will set a minimum level of ambition at least consistent with their direct peers. It will also drop the direct link to offsets, which Norway was very fond of,” – Glen Peters, CICERO.

9/3 – European Union: “At least” 40% on 1990 levels by 2030

“I now call on all our partners, especially major and emerging economies, to come forward in time and at least match our level of ambition,” – Miguel Arias Canete, EU climate commissioner.

Independent assessment: 40% goal looks “ambitious” given expected 54% rise in the EU’s economic growth from 2000 to 2030 (Jonathan Grant, PwC)

27/2 – Switzerland: 50% GHG cuts on 1990 levels by 2030

“This objective of a 50% reduction in emissions reflects Switzerland’s responsibility for climate warming” – Swiss environment ambassador Franz Perrez.

Independent assessment: “Switzerland’s proposal includes forestry accounting, which prevents an unambiguous quantification of its target, and will likely result in weaker emissions reductions across all other sectors” (Climate Action Tracker)

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